Singapore (i//), officially the Republic of Singapore, and often referred to as the Lion City, the Garden City, and the Red Dot, is a global city in Southeast Asia and the world's only island city-state. It lies one degree (137 km) north of the equator, at the southernmost tip of continental Asia and peninsular Malaysia, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south. Singapore's territory consists of the diamond-shaped main island and 62 islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23% (130 km2), and its greening policy has covered the densely populatedisland with tropical flora, parks and gardens.
The islands were settled from the second century AD by a series of local empires. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded Singapore as a trading post of the East India Company; after the company collapsed, the islands were ceded to Britain and became part of its Straits Settlements in 1826. During World War II, Singapore was occupied by Japan. It gained independence from Britain in 1963, by uniting with other former British territories to form Malaysia, but was expelled two years later over ideological differences. After early years of turbulence, and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed rapidly as an Asian tiger economy, based on external trade and its human capital.
Singapore is a global commerce, financial and transportation hub. Its standings include: "Easiest place to do business" (World Bank) for ten consecutive years, most "Technology-ready" nation (EIU), top "International meetings city" (UIA), city with "Best investment potential" (BERI), 2nd-most competitive country (WEF), 3rd-largest foreign exchange centre, 4th-largest financial centre, 3rd-largest oil refiningand trading centre and one of the top two busiest container ports since the 1990s. Singapore's best known global brands include Singapore Airlines and Changi Airport, both amongst the most-awarded in their industry; SIA is also rated by Fortune surveys as Asia's "most admired company". For the past decade, it is the only Asian country with the top AAA sovereign rating from all major credit rating agencies, including S&P, Moody's and Fitch.
Singapore ranks high on its national social policies, leading Asia and 11th globally, on the Human Development Index (UN), notably on key measures of education, healthcare, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety, housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of citizens own their homes, and the country has one of the highest per capita incomes, with low taxes. The cosmopolitan nation is home to 5.5 million residents, 38% of whom are permanent residents and other foreign nationals. Singaporeans are mostly bilingual, with English as their common language and a second mother-tongue language. Its cultural diversity is reflected in its extensive "hawker" cuisine and major ethnic festivals—Chinese, Malay, Indian, Western—which are all national holidays. In 2015, Lonely Planetand The New York Times listed Singapore as their top and 6th best world destination to visit respectively.
The nation's core principles are meritocracy, multiculturalism and secularism. It is noted for its effective, pragmatic and uncorrupt governance and civil service, which together with its rapid development policies, is widely cited as the "Singapore model". Gallup polls shows 84% of its residents expressed confidence in the national government, one of the highest ratings recorded. Singapore has significant influence on global affairs relative to its size, leading some analysts to classify it as a middle power. It is ranked as Asia's most influential city and 4th in the world by Forbes.
Singapore is a unitary multiparty parliamentary republic, with a Westminster system of unicameralparliamentary government. The People's Action Party has won every election since self-government in 1959. One of the five founding members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Singapore is also the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Secretariat, and a member of the East Asia Summit, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the Commonwealth of Nations.
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Gerry George or Gerard George is Dean at the Lee Kong Chian School of Business at Singapore Management University. Previously, he was Deputy Dean, professor of innovation and entrepreneurship and founding director of The Rajiv Gandhi Centre  at Imperial College London. The Rajiv Gandhi Centre, named after the former Prime Minister of India, was launched in December 2007 at Mumbai to facilitate research, technology and educational partnerships between Imperial College and Indian organisations and businesses. He helped launch the BML Munjal University and serves in an honorary position of International Dean. He retains the position of visiting professor at the innovation and entrepreneurship group at Imperial College Business School.
George is editor of the Academy of Management Journal , the leading journal in management and business research from 2013 until 2016. This will be the first time that the editorship has moved to Europe and then to Asia in the journal's 60 year history. In his editor role, he has encouraged a rethinking of management scholarship  to embrace important organizational and social phenomena rather than an exclusive focus on theory development in order to improve the social value of management research  In his term, editorials have encouraged management researchers to explore "grand challenges" for management including applications in climate change, aging populations, digital money, design thinking, and big data  among others.
George was also the Academic Director of the London Stock Exchange's Elite Programme to promote British growth entrepreneurs scale up their businesses. The programme was launched by Minister of State for Skills and Enterprise, Matt Hancock MP. In 2010, he was awarded a prestigious Professorial Fellowship by the UK's Economic and Social Research Council for his research on low cost innovation and inclusive growth. From 2007 - 2009, he was an Innovation Fellow of the Advanced Institute of Management Research. He conducts executive development programmes on innovation. For his work in India and Africa on inclusive innovation, he was conferred the honorary title of Fellow of the City & Guilds of London Institutein 2015.
Gerard George has numerous academic papers to his credit on the topics of internationalisation and entrepreneurship, patenting and licensing, open innovation, design, and business models. His work addresses social inclusion and growth through innovation in business models and governance in the context of rural electrification and micro-enterprise development in Africa . He is probably best known for his widely cited co-authored paper on absorptive capacity of firms with Professor Shaker Zahra. Another contribution is on the performance consequences of slack in private firms. He found evidence for the "less is more" philosophy or that 'resource constraints' improves financial performance in small and medium sized enterprises. His book 'Inventing Entrepreneurs: Technology Innovators and their Entrepreneurial Journey' focuses on scientists in academic and corporate environments who pursue entrepreneurial careers. His second book 'Models of Opportunity: How entrepreneurs design firms to achieve the unexpected' looks at the business model of growing businesses and how visionary entrepreneurs achieve extraordinary results by using narratives of change and aspiration.
Before his Chair at Imperial College London, he was a professor at London Business School  and the University of Wisconsin-Madison . He is an alumnus of Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani. He is actively involved in developing junior faculty in entrepreneurship and strategic management. He was on the program committee  of the Strategic Management Society special conference on India  held December 2008 at the Indian School of Business, Hyderabad. He is known to have strong entrepreneurial interest and active in creating new businesses .
- Financial Express, 4 December 2007, page 12
- G. George. 2012. Rethinking Management Scholarship. Academy of Management Journal, 57(1): 1-6
- J. Howard-Grenville, SJ. Buckle, BJ. Hoskins, G. George. 2014. Climate change and management. Academy of Management Journal, 57(3): 615-623.
- CT. Kulik, S. Ryan, S. Harper, G. George. 2014. Aging populations and management. Academy of Management Journal, 57(4): 929-935.
- M. Dodgson, DM. Gann, I. Wladwsky-Berger, N. Sultan, G. George. 2015. Managing digital money. Academy of Management Journal, 58(2): 325-333.
- M. Gruber, N. Leon, G. George, P. Thompson. 2015. Managing by design, Academy of Management Journal, 58 (1): 1 – 7
- G. George, MR. Haas, A. Pentland. 2014. Big data and management. Academy of Management Journal, 57(2): 321-325.
- G. George, A. McGahan, J. Prabhu. 2012. Innovation for inclusive growth: Towards a theoretical framework and research agenda. Journal of Management Studies, 49(4): 661 – 683
- S. Zahra and G. George. 2002. Absorptive capacity: A review, reconceptualization, and extension. Academy of Management Review, 27: 185-203.
- G. George. 2005. Slack resources and the performance of privately held firms, Academy of Management Journal, 48: 661-676
- G. George and A. Bock. 2008. Inventing entrepreneurs: Technology innovators and their entrepreneurial journey. Pearson Prentice Hall, ISBN 978-0-13-157470-0
- G. George and A.J. Bock. 2012. Models of opportunity: How entrepreneurs design firms to achieve unexpected results. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-17084-0